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Education

Summary

Around the world, one in every five children — from youth to adolescence — are not in school. Youth from ages 15–17 are four times more likely to be out of school than children 6–11, and in sub-Saharan Africa alone, one in every three children are out of school.1 Just 50 percent of primary school aged refugee children are enrolled in school, and 25 percent of secondary aged refugee children are enrolled in school.2 In 1820, just 12 percent of the world could read and write.1 Today, 86 percent of the world is literate.3 Two thirds of the world’s illiterate population are women.4 In 43 nations, women aged 15-24 are less likely to be literate than men, primarily in Northern Africa and Western Asia.4 The global youth literacy rate has grown from 83 percent to 91 percent in the last 20 years.5 Worldwide, 130 million women and girls — from the primary to the secondary level — are not in school.6 In a study conducted with a sampling of 100 countries, when increasing the number of girls completing 12 years of education by 1 percent, economic growth rises by 0.3 percent. On a global scale, that would yield an increase of $15 trillion in revenue annually.7 Show References
1 http://uis.unesco.org/en/news/education-data-release-one-every-five-children-adolescents-and-youth-out-school#slideoutmenu 2 http://campaignforeducationusa.org/topic/detail/education-in-emergencies 3 https://ourworldindata.org/literacy 4 https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS 5 https://data.unicef.org/topic/education/literacy/ 6 https://indd.adobe.com/view/dd1081b1-39b6-4637-9c61-ac0cbb275b45?startpage=7 7 Ibid
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Education Access
Education Other
Career and Technical Education
Literacy
STEM
Sports
Leadership Training
Tutoring
Mentorship
Extracurricular Activity
Scholarships and Grants
Professional Societies
Arts
One in every five children — from youth to adolescence — are not in school worldwide. Youth ages 15–17 are four times more likely to be out of school than children 6–11 ,and in sub-Saharan Africa alone, one in every three children are out of school.1 Estimates show that approximately 50 percent of children out of school live in conflict areas.2 By the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013, nearly 15.4 million refugees have fled their home countries due to conflict and now have limited educational resources.3 Just 50 percent of primary school aged refugee children are enrolled in school, and 25 percent of secondary aged refugee children are enrolled in school.4 Syria has a particularly high number of children who have dropped out Read More of school due to conflict at 1.9 million.5 Worldwide, 130 million women and girls — from the primary to the secondary level — are not in school.6 In a study conducted with a sampling of 100 countries, when increasing the number of girls completing 12 years of education by 1 percent, economic growth rises by 0.3 percent. On a global scale, that would yield an increase of $15 trillion in revenue annually7 Show Less
Improving access and quality of primary education has been one of the main focuses of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals.1 While the provision of primary education saw rapid improvement in the early 2000’s, progress has slowed down in recent years.2 One major issue that universally hinders further sustainable development in education is the high dropout rate at the primary school level.3 Since massive improvements have been made in the provision and affordability of primary education, the pressing need for advancements in the secondary education sector has gone up.4 The largest obstacles that the global community has to overcome are increasing the access and applicability of education, and developing the quality of teachers and curriculums.5 The World Bank has partnered Read More with local and national governments to provide secondary education to students all around the world, regardless of poverty levels, gender, religious affiliation, and ethnicity.6 Gender parity is a serious concern in most countries around the world.7 Young girls are at a serious disadvantage when it comes to gaining access to educational opportunities, especially in severely poverty stricken countries where misogynistic cultural norms persist.8 Some of these cultural norms include families favoring boys’ education over girls when income is limited, deficient female sanitation facilities at school, and exploitative classroom environments.9 In 2011, nearly 31 million primary school aged girls and over 34 million secondary school aged girls did not enroll in school.10 Overall countries located in Sub-Saharan Africa have highest gender gap in education.11 If more young girls were able to stay in school instead becoming ensnared in child marriages, the cycle of poverty could begin to decline.12 When adolescent girls continue their education it decreases their vulnerability to complications from early childbearing, decreases their exposure to HIV/AIDS, and builds skill sets that will serve them well later in life.13 Studies have shown that if a young girl continues her secondary school education to completion it can translate to an increase of 25% in her wages later in life.14 1 http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/mdgoverview.html 2 http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/mdgoverview/mdg_goals/mdg2/ 3 Ibid 4http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTEDUCATION/0,,contentMDK:20521328~menuPK:738179~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:282386~isCURL:Y,00.html 5-6 Ibid 7 http://www.unicef.org/education/bege_70640.html 8-14 Ibid Show Less
Vocational training, or career and technical education (CTE), is designed to improve the skills and abilities of those in the workforce, particularly in trades and other industries requiring prior training such as construction, welding, tourism, floral arranging, retail, sewing and embroidery, carpentry, farming, cosmetology, plumbing and lapidary.1 In 2013, the Los Angeles School District cut funding for the majority of its Career and Technical Education courses for its over 600,000 students; the district previously had automobile and aviation maintenance, audio engineering, real estate and photography programs. Sixty eight percent of high school graduates do not attend college, and 37 percent of college graduates are currently in careers they could have acquired with just a high school diploma.2 Students participating in CTE programs can often receive certifications Read More in their respective fields, enabling them to enter the workforce immediately post-graduation.3 Europe, the United States, China and Taiwan all heavily utilize CTE in their respective education systems.4 Europe’s Post-16 Skills Plan was implemented to give students equal access to both vocational and post-secondary career paths via the education system.5 Show Less
In 1820, just 12 percent of the world could read and write,1 today, 86 percent of the world is literate.2 In South Sudan, 73 percent of the population cannot read or write. Afghanistan, Burkina Faso and Niger are close behind, with 72 percent of the population being illiterate. Together, the four nations have the lowest literacy rates in the world.3 Two thirds of the world’s illiterate population are women.4 In 43 nations, women aged 15-24 are less likely to be literate than men, primarily in Northern Africa and Western Asia.5 The global youth literacy rate has grown from 83 percent to 91 percent in the last 20 years.6 Nearly 32 million people across the United States cannot read or write, and 20 percent of those in Read More Washington D.C. are illiterate. Without the ability to read or write, individuals are more likely to have lower paying jobs, an unstable financial status and have a higher risk of unemployment.7 On a national level, low literacy rates affect a nation’s GDP growth, and cause many job openings to remain unfilled, due to a lack of skilled candidates to fill them.8 Show Less
Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) related careers account for just over 6 percent of all jobs in the United States.1 The STEM job market is expected to increase by 13 percent over the next decade,2 in comparison, all other jobs in the U.S. are expected to increase by an average of 9 percent.3 Since the 1990s, STEM employment has increased 79 percent — from 9 million to 17 million.4 The median wage for a STEM job in the U.S. is $38/hour;5 those in a STEM career make 26 percent more than workers in other fields — an average salary of $54,745 compared to $40,505.6 Women account for 14 percent of engineering jobs and 39 percent of jobs in physical sciences.7 While there has been marked Read More progress for women's representation in some STEM areas, such as the physical sciences, the share of women has actually decreased in others. For example, in the 1990s, women accounted for 32 percent of all computer-related occupations. Today, women account for just 25 percent.8 Show Less
Of students from 1st through 12th grade in the United States, 57 percent participate in some form of extracurricular activity. Within those involved in extracurriculars, 34.7 percent are in a sport.1 Three-fourths of parents in the U.S. report encouraging their children to participate in a sport.2 Those who participate in sports and athletics have a lower likelihood of cardiovascular disease and obesity, and can increase bone and joint health, as well as improve sleep quality.3 Children in sports are also likely to have better vision — and have lower risk of developing vision impairments — and better motor skills than those who do not.4 Participation in athletics can also improve academic performance.5
Leadership training varies in setting, and can be academic, spiritual, professional or relational. Youth, business professionals and spiritual leaders are often the focus of leadership training program. Training may take place in schools, universities, churches, conferences or workplaces.123 Just 21 percent of working professionals in the United States report that they are satisfied with the leadership they receive in their workplace,4 and 43 percent may have leadership programs, but are lacking in proficiency or effectiveness, according to the Harvard Business Review.5
Tutoring provides a structured, focused, one-to-one educational environment for students seeking additional help outside of school, or those looking to raise test scores or grow in academic performance.Tutoring can improve a student’s work habits, reading and writing proficiency, social skills and time management strategies.12 In a study performed by the United States Department of Education, tutoring was shown to be most successful when: The tutoring program had close relationship with the student’s regular instructor Tutors were well-trained, and participated in ongoing training programs Tutoring sessions had consistent structure Progress of the pupil was consistently monitored Tutoring sessions occurred at regular intervals throughout the week or month. Sessions were 10–60 minutes each3 Internationally, full-time tutors for high-income families can make salaries from $70,000 to $120,000 a year, according to Consumer News and Business Read More Channel (CNBC). Such families may be in need of home education for their child due to constant travel, disability or security.4 Show Less
Mentoring is a relationship between two people with the purpose of sharing life experience and knowledge from one person to another, typically between an older and younger individual.1 In a 2013 United States study conducted in Washington by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation across seven mentorship agencies, mentoring was shown to be particularly beneficial to youth, improving social skills and academic performance, as well as relieving depressive symptoms in at-risk youth.2 Three quarters of at-risk youth in the United States with a mentor report that they hoped to attend and graduate college, while over half of at-risk youth without mentors reported plans to attend college.3 Of those same populations, 45 percent of those with mentors actually enrolled in a college or university compared to Read More just 29 percent of those without mentors who enrolled in college upon graduation.4 Show Less
Extracurriculars are classified as any activities, hobbies, sports, etc. that occur outside of a student’s academic environment.1 Of students from 1st through 12th grade in the United States, 57 percent participate in some form of extracurricular activity. Within those involved in extracurriculars, 34.7 percent are in a sport, 29.2 percent are in some form of lesson — music, dance, language — and 28.8 percent are in clubs. Some students participated in multiple activities. In a study conducted by the United States Department of Education, students with single or cohabiting parents were found to be less likely to participate in extracurricular activities than those living with married parents. 2 Studies show students who engage in extracurricular activities are likely to have higher academic performance than their Read More peers who do not.3 Extracurricular activities can improve time management and other life skills, as well as raise the individual’s opinion of academia. These activities also give students opportunities to explore interests, passions and new social circles.4 Show Less
Fewer than 20,000 students in the United States receive a full-ride scholarship for their postsecondary education each year, and less than a percent of students received enough individual scholarships to cover the cost of their college education.1 In the 2014–2015 academic year, the College Board found that two-thirds of full-time college students were using some form of grants or scholarships to complete their education.2 All U.S. college students are required to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) to qualify for federal financial assistance.3 In 2017, U.S. philanthropists, businesses, foundations and private individuals gave $410.02 billion to nonprofit organizations across the nation.4 Nonprofits can also apply for federal grants, as provided by the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance.5 Federal grants for nonprofits Read More can range from $500,000 to millions of dollars, and are granted after a series of applications and vetting processes.6 Show Less
Professional societies are organizations of individuals who have similar professions or disciplines, yet some societies are interdisciplinary. Typically, professional societies are research-based and academic in nature, though they can be oriented around a specific trade. Members pursue the study of an idea or cause, and often publish academic journals or other educational materials.1
The arts and culture have a quantifiable effect on communities and their broader societies, enhancing economies, education systems and even health care.1 Students who study the arts are considered more employable, and are more likely to remain employed throughout their lifetime.2 Nearly 60 percent of people who have attended a cultural program in the last year report good health.3 In the United Kingdom, the In Harmony music program, engaging students in some form of musical activity daily, improved 78 percent of the students’ performance scores in their core subjects.4 Students from low income backgrounds who are participating in the arts are three times more likely to complete their degree than those who are not.5 Simultaneously, according to Princeton University, the arts can improve perceptions of communities, promote Read More diversity and reduce crime rate.6 Additionally, the arts provenly raise cognitive abilities in its participants, increasing self esteem and lowering stress levels.7 Show Less

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