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Anguilla

Anguilla

Summary

Anguilla is an independent British territory, but was formerly a British colony that was incorporated into a conglomerate British dependency with Saint Kitts and Nevis in the early 19th century. The nation did not become recognized as an individual dependent until 1980, after being allowed to secede in 1971. The Queen of England is the Anguillan Chief of State, but an appointed governor represents the monarch in Anguilla. This governor and the chief minister form the head of the Anguillan government.1 The United Kingdom is responsible for the military defense of Anguilla.2 Anguilla has few natural resources, and agriculture is not possible with its climate. As a result, the economy largely depends on tourism, boat building, offshore banking and lobster fishing.3 The few agricultural products include tobacco, vegetables and cattle. In recent years, the growth in tourism and the construction sector have been instrumental in adding to the growth of the economy. The GDP of Anguilla is $174.4 million and the GDP per capita is $12,200.4 The percentage of the population below the poverty line is estimated to be 5.8 percent, with 17.7 percent of the population at risk of falling below the poverty line.5 1 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/av.html 2–4 Ibid 5 http://www.caribank.org/uploads/2012/12/Anguilla-CPA-Main-Report-Final-Submitted.pdf

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Environment
Family
Human Rights
Education
Poverty
Religion
Clean Water
Economy
Government
Health
Children
Animals

Environment

Anguilla has a tropical climate, and is located off the coast of Central America in the Caribbean. The island is frequently subjected to natural disasters like hurricanes and tropical storms. In 2017, Hurricane Irma hit Anguilla, damaging the island’s infrastructure. The nation’s natural resources include salt, fish and lobster.1

Family

An average of 1.75 children are born per woman in Anguilla.1 The Domestic Violence Act of 2014 prohibits domestic violence, and extends protective measures to victims. Those measures include protocol for police officials who receive domestic violence reports, as well as legal provisions for the victim to file for further protection in volatile situations.2

Human Rights

There are not reliable reports on the state of human rights in Anguilla to date. As an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, Anguilla is subject to the U.K.’s policies on human rights.1

Education

Education in Anguilla is free and mandatory for school aged children between the ages of 5 and 15.1 The University of the West Indies is in the nation’s capital, and offers degrees in educational leadership and management, teaching, mathematics, business and finance, accounting and management studies.2 The national literacy rate is at 95 percent, and education expenditures account for 2.8 percent of the GDP.3

Poverty

The percentage of the population below the poverty line is estimated to be 5.8 percent, with 17.7 percent of the population at risk of falling below the poverty line.1 Virtually the entire population has access to clean water and modern sanitation facilities.2

Religion

Protestantism accounts for a majority of the Anguillan population, at 73.2 percent. Roman Catholicism accounts for another 6.8 percent, 1.1 percent are Jehovah’s Witnesses and 10.9 percent are other Christians. The remainder of the population is unspecified, or claim none.1

Clean Water

Access to clean water is almost universal in Anguilla, with approximately 95 percent of the population having access to improved water sources, and nearly 98 percent having access to modern sanitation facilities.1 The island suffered a fair amount of damage to its infrastructure from Hurricane Irma in 2017.2

Economy

Anguilla has few natural resources, and agriculture is not possible with its climate. As a result, the economy largely depends on tourism, boat building, offshore banking and lobster fishing.1 The few agricultural products include tobacco, vegetables and cattle. In recent years, the growth in tourism and the construction sector have been instrumental in adding to the growth of the economy. The GDP of Anguilla is $174.4 million and the GDP per capita is $12,200.2 The percentage of the population below the poverty line is estimated to be 5.8 percent, with 17.7 percent of the population at risk of falling below the poverty line.3

Government

Anguilla is an independent British territory, but was formerly a British colony that was incorporated into a conglomerate British dependency with Saint Kitts and Nevis in the early 19th century. The nation did not become recognized as an individual dependent until 1980, after being allowed to secede in 1971. The Queen of England is the Anguillan Chief of State, but an appointed governor represents the monarch in Anguilla. This governor and the chief minister form the head of the Anguillan government.1 The United Kingdom is responsible for the military defense of Anguilla.2

Health

Anguilla has a low infant mortality rate of just 3.3 deaths per 1,000 live births. The nation also has a very high life expectancy of 81 years at birth.1 Virtually the entire population has access to clean water and modern sanitation facilities.2 The healthcare system is overseen by the Ministry of Health and Social Development.3 Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer are the leading causes of death in Anguilla.4

Children

Of the 17,087 people of Anguilla, approximately 22 percent are children under the age of 14.1 The Child Protection Act of 2018 is a provision for the rights and freedoms of children in Anguilla, and recognizes the decision making capacities of the child as well as protections for children being placed in alternative living arrangements should it be necessary for their well-being.2 The Act declares the basic rights of a child as the right to sufficient food, shelter, clothing, protection, medical attention, education and play, and states that it is the parent or guardian’s responsibility to provide that for their charge.3

Animals

Anguilla is home to the Anguilla Bank Anole lizard, Hawksbill sea turtle, scooty tern, masked booby, brown noddy and bridled tern.1 The nation has been exposed to a variety of invasive species, yet is still very biodiverse, and is a migratory stopping point for a number of species of birds. The island’s Anguilla Bank racers and Lesser Antillean iguanas are two of the endangered species residing in Anguilla.2

Anguilla

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