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Eritrea

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Eritrea, Ethiopia, Rwanda
Causes
Poverty
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Health
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Religion, Poverty
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Environment
Due to its location in the Eastern horn of Africa, Eritrea is very vulnerable to droughts, unpredictable weather, and uneven rainfall.1 Climate change has increased desertification and land degradation.2 Additionally, the rainfall patterns have become unpredictable, which has negative implications for small-scale farmers who rely on agricultural outputs for their livelihoods.3 The UNDP has been active in Eritrea to educate Eritreans on sustainable and efficient farming practices that will help them weather the effects of climate change.4

Show References
1http://www.er.undp.org/content/eritrea/en/home/ourwork/environmentandenergy/overview.html
2-4 Ibid
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Eritrea News

 
 
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Geography

Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan
Area

Total 117,600 sq km
Land 101,000 sq km
Water 16,600 sq km

Climate

hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands
Natural Resources

gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish ;
Natural Hazards

frequent droughts, rare earthquakes and volcanoes; locust swarms

volcanism: Dubbi (elev. 1,625 m), which last erupted in 1861, was the country's only historically active volcano until Nabro (2,218 m) came to life on 12 June 2011 Dubbi (elev. 1,625 m), which last erupted in 1861, was the country's only historically active volcano until Nabro (2,218 m) came to life on 12 June 2011
Current Environmental Issues

deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare

Demographics

Nationality
Eritrean
Population
6,233,682 (July 2013 est.)
Ethnic Groups
Languages
Religions

Finances

Since independence from Ethiopia in 1993, Eritrea has faced the economic problems of a small, poor country, facing chronic drought. These have been exacerbated by restrictive economic policies. Eritrea has a command economy under the control of the sole political party, the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ). Like the economies of many African nations, a large share of the population - nearly 80% - is engaged in subsistence agriculture. That sector only produces a small share of the country's total output. Since the conclusion of the Ethiopian-Eritrea war in 2000, the government has expanded use of military and ...See More party-owned businesses to complete President ISAIAS's development agenda. The government strictly controls the use of foreign currency by limiting access and availability. Few large private enterprises exist in Eritrea and most operate in conjunction with government partners, although recently a number of large international mining ventures have opened. Eritrea's national income also relies in part on taxes paid by members of the Diaspora. While reliable statistics on food security are difficult to obtain, erratic rainfall and the percentage of the labor force tied up in national service continue to interfere with agricultural production and economic development. Eritrea's harvests generally cannot meet the food needs of the country without supplemental grain purchases. Copper and gold production is likely to drive economic growth over the next few years, but military spending will continue to compete with development and investment plans. Eritrea's economic future will depend on market reform and success at addressing social problems such as illiteracy and low skills. Show Less ;
GDP Purchasing Power Parity

$4.468 billion (2012 est.); $4.176 billion (2011 est.); $3.842 billion (2010 est.)
Gross National Saving

3.6% of GDP (2012 est.); 1.6% of GDP (2011 est.); -3.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
Agriculture Products

sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, tobacco, sisal; livestock, goats; fish
Industries

food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, light manufacturing, salt, cement