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Ghana

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Environment
Ghana is highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change since the country relies heavily on agriculture for jobs and exports.1 The widespread poverty in Ghana also makes it increasingly difficult for the population to adapt to climate changes.2 Climate change has reportedly manifested itself in severe droughts, which create increased food insecurity.3 The impending climate changes is also predicted to put a significant strain on water resources and limit reforestation efforts.4 It is projected that seawater temperatures will rise in coming years and that this will have negative effect on fisheries.5

Show References
1http://www.encapafrica.org/documents/biofor/Climate%20Change%20Assessment_Ghana_%20FINAL.pdf
2-5 Ibid
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Ghana News

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Geography

Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Area

Total 238,533 sq km
Land 227,533 sq km
Water 11,000 sq km

Climate

tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Natural Resources

gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone ;
Natural Hazards

dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts
Current Environmental Issues

recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water

Demographics

Nationality
Ghanaian
Population
25,199,609 (July 2013 est.)
Ethnic Groups
Languages
Religions

Finances

Ghana's economy has been strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels. Ghana is well endowed with natural resources and agriculture accounts for roughly one-quarter of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. The services sector accounts for 50% of GDP. Gold and cocoa production and individual remittances are major sources of foreign exchange. Oil production at Ghana's offshore Jubilee field began in mid-December, 2010, and is expected to boost economic growth. President MAHAMA faces challenges in managing new oil revenue while maintaining fiscal ...See More discipline and resisting debt accumulation. Estimated oil reserves have jumped to almost 700 million barrels. Ghana signed a Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Compact in 2006, which aims to assist in transforming Ghana''s agricultural sector. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, and is also benefiting from the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative that took effect in 2006. In 2009 Ghana signed a three-year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF to improve macroeconomic stability, private sector competitiveness, human resource development, and good governance and civic responsibility. Sound macro-economic management along with higher prices for oil, gold and, cocoa helped sustain high GDP growth in 2008-12, despite the general slowdown in the global economy during that same time period. Show Less ;
GDP Purchasing Power Parity

$83.74 billion (2012 est.); $78.28 billion (2011 est.); $68.43 billion (2010 est.)
Gross National Saving

18.1% of GDP (2012 est.); 17.5% of GDP (2011 est.); 17.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
Agriculture Products

cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Industries

mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building