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Liechtenstein

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Environment
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Environment
Liechtenstein’s government has historically been intentional in the protection of its environment, but the sectors of Liechtenstein that are most vulnerable are the water management plants, forestry, agriculture, biodiversity, and tourism.1 Liechtenstein’s government also advocates for more international climate agreements, as the country’s air pollution comes mostly from neighboring countries. 2

Show References
1 http://climate-adapt.eea.europa.eu/countries/liechtenstein
2 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/ls.html
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Geography

Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Area

Total 160 sq km
Land 160 sq km
Water 0 sq km

Climate

continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Natural Resources

hydroelectric potential, arable land ;
Natural Hazards

NA
Current Environmental Issues

NA

Demographics

Nationality
Liechtenstein
Population
37,009 (July 2013 est.)
Ethnic Groups
Languages
Religions

Finances

Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and likely the second highest per capita income in the world. The Liechtenstein economy is widely diversified with a large number of small businesses. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 20% - and easy incorporation rules have induced many holding companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more ...See More than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe. Since 2008, Liechtenstein has faced renewed international pressure - particularly from Germany - to improve transparency in its banking and tax systems. In December 2008, Liechtenstein signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement with the US. Upon Liechtenstein's conclusion of 12 bilateral information-sharing agreements, the OECD in October 2009 removed the principality from its "grey list" of countries that had yet to implement the organization's Model Tax Convention. By the end of 2010, Liechtenstein had signed 25 Tax Information Exchange Agreements or Double Tax Agreements. In 2011 Liechtenstein joined the Schengen area, which allows passport-free travel across 26 European countries. Show Less ;
GDP Purchasing Power Parity

$3.2 billion (2009); $3.216 billion (2008); $3.159 billion (2007)
Agriculture Products

wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
Industries

electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments