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Environment
The most severe environmental issues in China are air pollution, water pollution, desertification, and erosion.1 China is the most populous nation on the planet and this has caused significant loss of biodiversity and environmental degradation within the country.2 Experts estimate that by the year 2025, China could become the global leader in greenhouse gas emissions.3 The concentration of particulates polluting breathing air in China is 40 times higher than the level deemed safe by the World Health Organization.4 Additionally, the emissions from coal plants in 2011 alone potentially contributed to over a quarter of a million premature deaths.5 Due to its large and varied climate, China faces roughly 3 earthquakes, 6 floods, and 6.5 storms classified as natural disasters per ...See More year.6 In 2013 alone, natural disasters cost China $69 billion.6-7 Show Less

Show References
1 http://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/china/environmental_problems_china/
2-3 Ibid
4 http://www.cfr.org/china/chinas-environmental-crisis/p12608
5 Ibid
6 http://www.preventionweb.net/english/countries/statistics/?cid=36
7 http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/24/us-china-disasters-idUSBREA1N0JW20140224
See Also
http://www.worldwatch.org/china-tackles-disasters-new-emergency-response-system
Hide References

China News

BBC News 
China has entered a "new era" where it should "take centre stage in the world", President Xi Jinping says. The country's rapid progress under "socialism with Chinese characteristics" shows there is "a new choice for other countries", he told the ... See more..
Los Angeles Times 
Nearly four decades ago, Mo Fengyue leaned over the boat carrying her to China and dumped her Vietnamese identity cards into the river. With a flick of the wrist, Mo sacrificed the land of her birth for an ancestral homeland she'd never known. “You had ... See more..
New York Times 
Of the controversy over Russia's influence in the American presidential election, an online “supervisor” for one of China's biggest social media platforms said: “This kind of thing would not happen here.” (What gets censored? There are 68 categories of ... See more..
See More News
OregonLive.com 
In this image made off the screen at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center in Beijing and released by China's Xinhua News Agency, China's Shenzhou-9 manned spacecraft, left, conducts docking with the Tiangong-1 space lab module on Monday, June 18, ... See more..
Forbes 
The importance of the Chinese Communist Party's 19th party congress to the future of Xi Jinping's leadership and the direction of China has paralyzed policy debates on many issues, including North Korea. The paralysis has persisted despite the Donald ... See more..
BBC News 
Mr Yu is worried that millions of workers the Chinese government plans to lay off from failing state owned companies will be "abandoned" like he says he was 15 years ago. Mark Weinberger is worried about China's mountain of national debt, the ... See more..
Forbes 
Where Chinese gauge tracks come together to meet Russian gauge tracks -- the place where East meets West at Khorgos Gateway in Kazakhstan. For optimum experience please view on mobile. Concurrently, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) seems to ... See more..
Teslarati 
Alexander Potter, analyst for Piper Jaffrays, said in a note to clients Tuesday that Tesla has little to fear when it comes to being competitive in China. In fact, Potter went as far as saying that “nobody can compete” with the California-based ... See more..
Forbes 
Chinese technology is a high-risk momentum sector within a high risk, rapidly growing but volatile market. For those comfortable with these risks, several MoneyShow.com contributors see strong long-term potential in China's large and growing social ... See more..
Bloomberg 
In 2012, former President Hu Jintao pledged China will "double its 2010 gross domestic product and per capita income for both urban and rural residents" by 2020, which dictated a roughly 6.5 percent annual growth pace through that decade. Today ... See more..
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Geography

Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Area

Total 9,596,961 sq km
Land 9,569,901 sq km
Water 27,060 sq km

Climate

extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Natural Resources

coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest) ;
Natural Hazards

frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence

volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
Current Environmental Issues

air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species

Demographics

Nationality
Chinese
Population
1,349,585,838 (July 2013 est.)
Ethnic Groups
Languages
Religions

Finances

Since the late 1970s China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role - in 2010 China became the world's largest exporter. Reforms began with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, creation of a diversified banking system, development of stock markets, rapid growth of the private sector, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises ...See More in sectors it considers important to "economic security," explicitly looking to foster globally competitive national champions. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, in July 2005 China revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid 2005 to late 2008 cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar was more than 20%, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual appreciation. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2012 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, having surpassed Japan in 2001. The dollar values of China's agricultural and industrial output each exceed those of the US; China is second to the US in the value of services it produces. Still, per capita income is below the world average. The Chinese government faces numerous economic challenges, including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic demand; (b) sustaining adequate job growth for tens of millions of migrants and new entrants to the work force; (c) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (d) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2011 more than 250 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of population control policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on nuclear and alternative energy development. In 2010-11, China faced high inflation resulting largely from its credit-fueled stimulus program. Some tightening measures appear to have controlled inflation, but GDP growth consequently slowed to under 8% for 2012. An economic slowdown in Europe contributed to China's, and is expected to further drag Chinese growth in 2013. Debt overhang from the stimulus program, particularly among local governments, and a property price bubble challenge policy makers currently. The government's 12th Five-Year Plan, adopted in March 2011, emphasizes continued economic reforms and the need to increase domestic consumption in order to make the economy less dependent on exports in the future. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals. Show Less ;
GDP Purchasing Power Parity

$12.61 trillion (2012 est.); $11.7 trillion (2011 est.); $10.7 trillion (2010 est.)
Gross National Saving

50.4% of GDP (2012 est.); 51.1% of GDP (2011 est.); 52.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
Agriculture Products

world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Industries

world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites