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Environment
A primary environmental concern in Turkey is air pollution.1 Population growth, industrialization, and increases in demand for fuel have contributed significantly to air pollution.2 Rising air pollution has prompted Turkey to develop alternate sources of energy, such as hydropower.3 Turkey has implemented the legal framework for Air Quality developed by the European Union.4 Because Turkey has wetlands and other biologically diverse regions, it is highly vulnerable to change.5 Desertification and water scarcity are prominent concerns in Turkey.6

Show References
1 http://www.nuce.boun.edu.tr/turkey.html
2-4 Ibid
5http://www.eea.europa.eu/soer/countries/tr/soertopic_view?topic=climate%20change
6 Ibid
Hide References

Turkey News

New York Times 
ISTANBUL — Turkey has removed the concept of evolution from its high school curriculum, in what critics fear is the latest attempt by President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's government to erode the country's secular character. Starting in September, a ... See more..
The Guardian 
Five people, including two teenagers and a 12-year-old, have been electrocuted in a water park in north-western Turkey. The three children were struck by an electrical current in a swimming pool at the park, in the town of Akyazı, Sakarya province, the ... See more..
Newsweek 
Russian President Vladimir Putin oversaw Friday's joining of a major pipeline that's set to provide Turkey with over 556 billion cubic feet of gas each year, an event that came shortly after the two countries reached a deal to allow foreign troops into ... See more..
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Washington Post 
In my part of the world, people used to believe that their fate was determined by dark conspiracies cooked up by Western powers, or Israel, and that local politics was simply window-dressing for Western imperial interests. No longer. The past few years ... See more..
CNN 
Although homosexuality in Turkey is legal, the country has a troubling problem with human rights violations against LGBTI+ people -- and it may be getting ... See more..
U.S. News & World Report 
US News is a recognized leader in college, grad school, hospital, mutual fund, and car rankings. Track elected officials, research health conditions, and find ... See more..
Los Angeles Times 
The Turkey Testicle Festival is the biggest social event in this stretch of Sierra foothills. Its only competition is the yearly rodeo just down the road or the American Legion Hall dances. “And they don't really come close,” said Mike Collins, who ... See more..
The Japan News 
Turkish Defense Ministry officials said in a statement that Mattis also reassured Defense Minister Fikri Isik that the United States would regularly provide Turkey with a list of arms provided to the fighters while U.S. military advisers on the field ... See more..
Reuters 
Turkey, the second-largest buyer of Russian wheat after Egypt and the biggest buyer of its sunflower oil, had been in an agriculture trade dispute with Russia since mid-March when it imposed what Moscow regarded as prohibitively high import tariffs. See more..
Vox 
Despite threats from right-wing groups, LGBTQ rights activists in Turkey are pressing on with plans for a Pride parade in Istanbul this Sunday. Yes, a Pride parade. And yes, in Turkey, a country that has adopted increasingly conservative social ... See more..
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Geography

Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Area

Total 783,562 sq km
Land 769,632 sq km
Water 13,930 sq km

Climate

temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Natural Resources

coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower ;
Natural Hazards

severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier
Current Environmental Issues

water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic

Demographics

Nationality
Turkish
Population
80,694,485 (July 2013 est.)
Ethnic Groups
Languages
Religions

Finances

Turkey's largely free-market economy is increasingly driven by its industry and service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. An aggressive privatization program has reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication, and an emerging cadre of middle-class entrepreneurs is adding dynamism to the economy and expanding production beyond the traditional textiles and clothing sectors. The automotive, construction, and electronics industries, are rising in importance and have surpassed textiles within Turkey's export mix. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up ...See More to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. Several gas pipelines projects also are moving forward to help transport Central Asian gas to Europe through Turkey, which over the long term will help address Turkey's dependence on imported oil and gas to meet 97% of its energy needs. After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth - averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis and GDP rebounded strongly to 9.2% in 2010, as exports returned to normal levels following the recession. Growth dropped to approximately 3% in 2012. Turkey's public sector debt to GDP ratio has fallen to about 40%, and at least one rating agency upgraded Turkey's debt to investment grade in 2012. Turkey remains dependent on often volatile, short-term investment to finance its large trade deficit. The stock value of FDI stood at $117 billion at year-end 2012. Inflows have slowed because of continuing economic turmoil in Europe, the source of much of Turkey's FDI. Turkey's relatively high current account deficit, uncertainty related to monetary policy-making, and political turmoil within Turkey's neighborhood leave the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence. Show Less ;
GDP Purchasing Power Parity

$1.142 trillion (2012 est.); $1.113 trillion (2011 est.); $1.026 trillion (2010 est.)
Gross National Saving

20.4% of GDP (2012 est.); 23.6% of GDP (2011 est.); 19.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
Agriculture Products

tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock
Industries

textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper